Everything you ever wanted to know about psychoanalysis.
Translated by Charles Yan Gore, 郭研
In an interview with Stefano Bolognini, the first Italian to be elected as President of the IPA (International Psychoanalytical Association), I asked him everything I had ever wanted to know, and had never asked before, about psychoanalysis.
(Stefano Bologini)的一次访谈中，我向他咨询了我对精神分析学所需要了解、 却从没问过的所有问题。
People say, "I’m in analysis ...", but in reality, they have only started with psychotherapy. What is the fundamental difference between the two?
The difference is the same as the difference between two people living together or seeing each other once a week. In analysis, apart from the setting (couch instead of chair), the frequency contributes to the depth of exploration and the emotional bond between analyst and patient. It is a "psychic cohabitation".
Psychoanalysis is a cultural fact, a combination of psychological theories about certain aspects of human mental functioning, but primarily it is a form of therapy. Does it make sense to enter into analysis purely as an intellectual adventure and a learning experience?
Thirty years ago, when many intellectuals undertook analysis to enrich their inner world, rather than heal themselves through change, very often they discovered that intellectualization could be, at least in part, a defence. This no longer happens now: analysis requires an economic sacrifice that was more sustainable in the past, and people "kid themselves" much less now, going straight to the heart of the matter: that is, to the suffering and the need.
神分析的同时，他们常常会发现知识化的过程在某种意义上可以是一种防卫行为。 而这种现象不复存在了：精神分析需要一种过去曾经更为持久的经济上的牺牲； 并且现在人们不常再"自我愚弄"了，而是直击问题的核心：即其痛苦和需求。
Psychoanalysis serves to understand some of the problems of the individual, but why is it used often, and inappropriately, to understand society?
The application of psychoanalysis to the lives of groups and societies began in1921, when Freud wrote Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego. The model of individual psychic life cannot be applied verbatim to the psychology of society as a whole; nevertheless, certain analogies between certain psychic and fantasmatic structures of large groups and those of an individual cannot be denied either. The quality of these observations depends on who makes them.
理学及自我分析》。个人精神生活的模型无法原封不动的应用于整个社会的心理 学；但同时，我们也无法否认某种大型群体与个人在心理和意幻结构上的相似性。 这些心理观察的成果取决于其作者。
In psychoanalysis, psyche prevails over morals. The psychoanalyst tends not to judge. In Italy, as Flaiano said, we have only one enemy, "the referee in football matches, because he passes judgment." Could all this deresponsibilize us?
In the context of perversion, the confusion between good and evil is strategically manipulated so as to disorient the subject and make him lose his inner contact with these basic distinctions. The technique of psychoanalysis calls for ‘suspension’, in anticipation of the patient's associations. To be able to open themselves up to the exploration of their own inner life, patients need to feel listened to with impartiality. However, when the confusion has a perverse origin, the analyst must clarify the dynamics of all this. Psychoanalysis requires the patient to take conscious responsibility: for example, a patient is not "guilty" of their repressed or conscious desires, if they do not act on them; but they are "responsible" for them, and as they are mature to recognize their presence and meaning. They may wish to kill their enemy (we cannot "decide" feelings and fantasies), but they will have to, responsibly, not do so.
迷惑使他的内心失去了对正邪的判断。精神分析学家常使用对预料中患者的关联 进行"暂停"的手法。要使他们敞开对自我内心世界的探索，患者需要有他们被 全面公正地聆听的感觉。然而，如果这种迷惑有一个反向的缘由，分析学家则必 须澄清所有这些的动态变化。心理分析学家会要求患者自觉的承担责任：比如， 患者不必为其被约束或自觉性的欲望而"内疚"；但他们应该成熟并负责任地意 识到这些欲望的存在及其意义。他们或许希望灭除他们的敌人
Psychoanalysis gives each of us the thrill of taking centre stage. The analyst
turns our very existence into a compelling narrative. Isn’t there a risk that this gratifies people’s narcissism?
Yes, but in many cases this is exactly what some less evolved parts of patients need. In most cases, it is not about pampering a narcissist, but rather bringing value and a sense of self to people (or those inner parts of them) who did not have a receptive container during their developmental stage. Then, alongside these, there are the real narcissists: they will find precisely the opposite response in terms of technique, aimed at making them aware of their demeanour and transforming it.
不在于纵容自恋者，而在于给那些发展阶段未形成开放意识的人们带来价值和自 我意识，或让他们意识到其内心世界。此外，也有那些真正的自恋者：他们则会 得到手法上完全相反的处理，使他们意识到自己被贬低的身份并转变它们。
I've never entered into analysis because I am suspicious of the unequal relationship with the analyst, who "naturally" tends to abuse their power.
The relationship is not equal and it cannot and should not be so, because the analyst has a fundamental functional responsibility in working with the patient. However, on a human level there is absolute equality between the two: they are two people, and must treat each other as such.
What happens, in a planned way, in the course of the psychoanalytic relationship, has happened normally for centuries, and has been ‘generated, with joyous spontaneity, from devotion and affection’ (Adorno), without the need for the "artifice" of sessions and their liturgy. Before Freud, was humanity really so much worse off?
Psychoanalysis, when it is carried out properly, is a more focused and aware way of providing the individual with what they need to grow. There are many people who know how to relate to others with depth and empathy, which are precious natural gifts. But psychoanalytic empathy is technically another thing: it has a different technical complexity, for example, it involves tuning into different parts of the patient that are at odds with each other, such as affection and hatred felt at the same time towards the same person...
如果运用合理，精神分析法是一种引导人们心理成长，关注性和意识性更强的方 法。很多人都知道如何与他人产生深入的、心灵相通的联系，这是一种天赋。但 技术上讲，精神分析学里的同感则是另一件事情：它有一种不同的技术复杂性， 例如，它将患者的不同性格部分变得互相矛盾，诸如同时对一个人产生喜爱与仇 恨……
Are there other ways besides psychoanalysis to process suffering, such as dance (as the psychoanalyst Elvio Fachinelli once told me)?
Yes, there are other ways, which differ from case to case and which can greatly help a person. However, they exert a different and more localized effect, and sometimes no more than superficial. These activities can be useful, but they are rarely truly transformative in a structural and lasting sense.
For some therapists today the unconscious has almost dissolved: people do not repress or erase anything anymore (the Super Ego does not forbid us anything, on the contrary it encourages us to indulge, because this increases consumerism). So our problem is not so much how to "liberate ourselves" as how to strengthen an increasingly fragile Ego.
超我不会阻止我们做任何事情，相反因为会增加消费主义，它会激发我们放纵)。 因此我们的问题不在于如何"解放自我"，而在于如何加强一个越来越脆弱的自 我。
Yes, that’s true. Not in the sense that the unconscious does not exist anymore at all, but in the sense that it is less repressed, while the central ego is weaker, more fragmented and confused. In the past, people needed to get rid of an oppressive Super Ego, whereas today they need to reintegrate, to find reliable "objects" (in the sense of people and relationships) and be able to build relationships with common sense and consistency. Modern man is often arrogant, confused and frankly much more needy than you think.
来越少，与此同时自我中心变得更强烈、更破碎而且更迷乱。过去，人们需要摆 脱一个难以忍受的超我，而今天人们需要重新将它结合起来，以此寻找值得信赖 的"目标"