Section 1: Introduction
Section 2: IPA Policy
2.1–2.4: Types of Travel
2.7: Finance and Expenses
2.9: What to do in Case of an Incident
Section 3: IPA General Travel Guidelines
Section 3.0: Planning Your Trip
Section 4.0: Health
Section 5.0: Photography
Section 6.0: General Safety Precautions
Section 1 - Introduction
The IPA is an international membership organisation and members, in a voluntary capacity, are key ingredients to our current activity and achievement of our future aims and objectives. Members will principally travel on IPA business in the course of their duties for a particular committee or group. In many cases, the meeting may well be organised by Broomhills and therefore there will be full organisational support. In other cases, groups of IPA members, or even individual members, may be travelling to areas with support from some local non IPA body.
Most trips will be made without any incident but all travel has some risk. Recent events that have affected travel include health scares, terrorism, and accidents among others. In addition, the security and health status of countries, or even areas within countries, constantly changes and there is a need for up to date information.
This document sets out IPA policy for IPA members travelling on IPA business and also provides useful guidelines to help you plan your trip to minimise risk. In the unlikely event that something does go wrong, it sets out procedure for what you should do and where you should go for help. Please read it carefully.
Although it is the result of many years of experience, it cannot deal with every aspect of every trip because all countries and projects are different. A project in China will be very different from a project in Eastern Europe. If you have any queries please contact the IPA office at Broomhills and we will do our best to help or point you in the right direction.
All this may make overseas travel seem intimidating, but most members find working in other cultures hugely interesting, professionally rewarding and personally uplifting. As well as providing insights into other ways of life, they are a source of memories to be treasured for ever and often of friendships which endure. That many members travel for Committees or go on projects time and time again is surely the proof of their appeal.
Section 2 - IPA travel policy
2.1 - Types of Travel
Travel on IPA business may be to fulfil the duties of membership of a particular committee, to attend a meeting as part of the work of a committee or consultative group, or for other ad hoc reasons. In some cases, in country partners and contacts may well be chosen by IPA members travelling on IPA business. Travel can be loosely categorised into the following groups.
2.2 - Organised Committee Meetings and Conferences Etc
This type of travel is to attend a meeting organised for a group by an IPA or IPA related party. It is typified by a group travelling from separate destinations where members of that group or an organiser would quickly notice the non arrival or absence of a group member.
For this type of travel, you will normally have a key contact, a member of IPA staff or another body, and that person should be your key contact in terms of any travel assistance and for lodging travel details etc before departure.
2.3 - Site Visits or Similar
Site visits are normally undertaken by two or more IPA members. They will be in contact with a local group and each other and it is important that members ensure that they exchange travel plans and contact details with each other and their in country hosts before departure. It is recommended that they lodge details of their next of kin, contact details, and travel plans with Broomhills before departure.
2.4 - Other
IPA business may entail independent travel from time to time. This can be for a variety of reasons, most but not all of which would include an in country contact. Eg attendance at a conference on behalf of the IPA or shuttle analysis when part of IPA training for example. In such cases, it is strongly recommended that IPA members lodge their travel plans, contact details, and next of kin with Broomhills before departure.
When logging your travel plans, contact details and next of kin please e mail these to: email@example.com
2.5 - Risk
You should be clear that any overseas travel on IPA business will differ from an organised holiday. It can include discomforts and uncertainties. It can also include risks to health as well as risks to your person. In general, The IPA does not work in war-torn or highly unstable areas and works with reliable in country partners or contacts. In some cases, IPA Members for their committee work will make direct contact with local contacts or partners and therefore effectively directly control many of the risks involved in travel.
The over-riding principle is that all travel on IPA official business is entirely at your own risk. You should think carefully about the country you are about to visit, make your own personal risk-assessment and form your own conclusions.
As part of this process, you are strongly advised to use official sources of information for up to date information on:
- Travel security
Useful sources of travel security information are:
- The UK’s Foreign Office Website www.fco.gov.uk
- The US Government Travel Advisory Service www.travel.state.gov
Health information splits into generic information and particular information for individuals, depending on their state of health and country of origin.
For generic information on health risks and inoculations, you are advised to use the World Health Organisation’s Website http://www.who.int/ith/en/ which provides information on the prevalence of major diseases and the need for inoculation.
The UK Government also operates a Website with good, general information www.fitfortravel.nhs.uk
Sources in your home country can provide information on requirements for travellers from your country and your own Doctor or medical practitioner is the best source of advice concerning any specific medical condition or your state of health.
2.6 - Insurance
2.6.1 - Travel Insurance and Medical Emergencies.
Thanks to the careful preparation and common sense of members, mishaps and health problems on IPA business travel are very few and far between.
However, the IPA does not provide travel cover and any IPA Members travelling on IPA business are strongly recommended to ensure that they are fully covered with a general travel insurance policy that covers the main travel risks. Many members will already have comprehensive travel policies but we strongly recommend that you check that this covers you for IPA related travel.
Members may also wish to consider the potential risks for their families and consider life insurance before travelling overseas.
2.6.3 - Additional Insurance.
It is advisable to check that cover is adequate for the types of equipment you may wish to take with you such as Laptops and digital cameras.
2.7 - Finance and Expenses
2.7.1 - What IPA Pays For.
The IPA’s policy on reimbursement of expenses is detailed in its Procedural Code. This is updated periodically and available on the IPA Website.
2.7.2 - What Members Pay For.
Members pay for any expenditure not included in the IPA’s reimbursement policy. In general the IPA does not reimburse:
- All personal medical expenses before the project including blood tests, vaccinations and malaria prophylactics.
- All personal expenditure including souvenirs, telephone calls and other personal costs.
- Travel insurance
2.7.3 - Personal Money.
Guide books or your in country hosts should be consulted to find out the best way of carrying money. In general, cash should be avoided where possible but in some countries credit cards may not be widely accepted. Money should be changed legally at airports, banks and hotels.
2.8 - Health
It is the responsibility of each Member to consult their own GP and have any appropriate inoculations before travelling. Members pay for medical check ups and inoculations themselves. Please note that Members requiring inoculations for the first time may have to start up to 3 months before departure.
2.9 - What to Do in Case of Incident
2.9.1 - Medical Emergencies
As previously stated, we recommend that Members only travel with comprehensive medical cover. In this case, it is vital that you follow the procedure set out by your insurer before committing to any treatment or expenditure. Most policies allow for treatment of an extremely urgent nature but again insurers have their own procedures for this which must be adhered to.
Your local host or country partner should be able to provide advice and information as to where to go for the best treatment. Good guide books may also have helpful medical information.
2.9.2 - Loss of Money, Travel Documents Etc
Generally the best sources of assistance for urgent money needs will be IPA colleagues or your in country hosts. Local consuls or Embassies will need to be contacted as soon as possible to obtain replacement travel documents and can also in some cases provide emergency loans.
2.9.3 - Other Incidents and Emergencies
There are many other potential accidents and emergencies. These include disappearance of a colleague for any reason, a transport accident, or terrorist activity to name but a few eventualities.
The general procedure to be followed is to:
- Alert the local authorities as soon as possible
- Alert the local embassy if serious injury or other major incident has occurred
- Alert your local hosts or contacts as soon as possible
- Alert Broomhills as soon as possible
- Under no circumstances enter negotiations or offer bribes
2.9.4 - Emergency Back Up from Broomhills
The IPA office in Broomhills can offer the following emergency assistance:
- Contacting next of kin (where known or notified to the office)
- Coordinating official assistance and ensuring that embassies etc are fully briefed on an incident
- Liaising with local hosts or partners, next of kin, embassies and consulates
- Mobilising PR support to exert pressure on official bodies.
Effective support from Broomhills is dependent on you logging your travel details to firstname.lastname@example.org as detailed under Section 1.1 in this document.
The office should be contacted during normal office hours on the following numbers:
- Tel: +44 (0) 20 8446 8324
- Fax: +44 (0) 20 8445 4729
Out of office hours or in emergency telephone +44 TBA
Section 3 - IPA General Travel Guidelines
3. - Planning Your Trip
3.1 - General.
The key to success is careful preparation. It is essential you read the Policy and Guidelines carefully and follow the advice. The purpose of this section is to highlight certain essential actions. It is not exhaustive and there may be other things to do depending on the destination and the project.
3.2 - Purpose.
Make sure you are clear from the outset why you are travelling, what the purpose of the trip is, and what arrangements are being made for you and those parts of the trip you have to organise yourself.
3.3 - Personal Risk Assessment.
Make sure you are aware of and content with the security situation in your destination country. Visit the official sites detailed in Section 1 or any information sites provided by other trusted, official sources to ensure you are fully aware of all health and security risks. If you have any concerns regarding health or security and your particular journey raise these with your Committee Chair,if appropriate, or with Broomhills.
3.4 - Consider the Effects of Travel on Any Persistent Medical Conditions.
If you suffer from any kind of persistent medical condition you must seek advice from your own Doctor before travelling. In this connection, a persistent condition is any condition for which you take medication or medical advice on an on-going basis. In addition, it refers to any condition which limits your ability to walk, stand, carry luggage etc. By way of example only, it includes such things as heart abnormalities, diabetes, neurological conditions, asthma, slipped disks, eating disorders, food allergies etc
3.5 - Medical.
It is essential you visit your GP as soon as possible before a trip. Explain where you are going and ensure that you are provided with the inoculations and any necessary prophylactics eg for malaria relevant to your destination.
3.6 - Inoculations.
Inoculation requirements vary somewhat between destinations. It is your responsibility to consult your doctor and make sure you are correctly covered.
3.7 - Dentist.
It is recommended you have your teeth checked and any outstanding work carried out as dental quality can be variable overseas or communication more difficult simply because of language differences.
3.8 - Personal Medical Kit.
If you are travelling to lesser developed countries, a personal medical kit may be advisable, see Section 6.
3.9 - Personal Kit and Clothing.
Make sure you are aware of cultural differences for acceptable clothing norms and different climatic conditions at your destination.
3.10 - Visa.
You may well need a Visa. It is essential that you follow local application instructions meticulously and allow plenty of time.
3.11 - Country Background.
It is useful to be aware of the geography, climate, history, cultural mores, currency etc of the country to be visited. Useful sources of information include encyclopaedias, Wikipedia wikipedia.org or a good guide book such as the Lonely Planet series.
3.12 - Contact Details.
Ensure that all necessary parties eg your hosts in the country of destination, family etc have full contact details for you including details of where you are staying, mobile phone etc. Send details of your travel itinerary, next of kin and contact details to Broomhills email@example.com as detailed in Section 1.1 of this guide.
3.12 - Next of Kin.
Please tell your next of kin where you are going and when you are expected back. Let them know that it is IPA policy not to communicate with them except in emergency. They should regard no news as good news.
3.13 - Check List.
All the points in this Section are on the Check List at Appendix 1. You are strongly recommended to complete this Check List as your preparations proceed to ensure nothing is forgotten.
Section 4 - Health
It is important to realise that the vast majority of IPA members have no health problems whilst travelling on IPA business. However, it would be idle to pretend that there are no threats to health in developing countries. These can be minimised by following simple, common sense rules as set out below.
4.1 - First Thoughts.
Please note that:
4.1.1 - Medical cover may be sparse in developing countries. The same standard of medical care may not be available, emergency medical recovery may be difficult and may impede assistance.
4.1.2 - Overseas travel may be physically demanding and members should be fit and healthy. It is unwise to travel carrying an injury or in a delicate state of health. For this reason, female Members are strongly advised to obtain medical advice if travelling when pregnant.
4.3 - Before you go.
4.3.1 Visit your GP.
It is the responsibility of each Member to consult their own GP and have any appropriate inoculations before travelling. Members pay for these themselves. Please note that Members requiring inoculations for the first time may have to start up to 3 months before departure. A certificate of vaccination against Yellow Fever is a compulsory requirement for entry to some countries. It is worth noting that advice on what is necessary for each destination sometimes differs. This is not a cause for alarm and simply reflects the fact that the opinions of medical experts vary. Usually, it is best to be guided by your GP unless you have a very good reason to feel that he or she may be out of date or otherwise incorrect.
4.3.2 - Make up a Personal Medical Kit. See below.
4.3.3 - Begin Anti-Malarial Precautions if applicable. See below.
4.3.4 - Know your Blood Group.
If you are in a serious accident, having information on you giving your Blood Group may save your life. Therefore, you are strongly advised to have your blood group tested and to carry a card with this information with your passport.
4.4 - Visit the Dentist.
4.5 - Major Problem Areas for Health.
The main problems areas for health on international travel are unsurprising and include:
4.5.1 - Traffic Accidents.
- Wear a seat belt.
- Minimise vehicle movement after dark.
- Avoid travelling in poorly maintained vehicles.
4.5.2 - Sun.
- Control exposure.
- Use high-factor sun cream.
- Wear a hat and long sleeves if outside for long periods.
4.5.3 - Dehydration.
- In very hot climates, dehydration is a real possibility and it is a potentially serious condition.
- The only way to avoid it is to drink plenty of water or soft drinks and a minimum of 3 litres per day is recommended.
- Drink only bottled water, a supply of which should be purchased immediately on arrival.
4.5.4 - Eating.
- Eat freshly cooked foods where possible.
- Avoid salads.
- Avoid fruit unless washed in bottled water or peeled.
- Avoid food sold at the roadside or in street markets.
4.5.5 - Swimming.
- Do not swim in lakes and rivers; serious illnesses (eg, Bilharzia) can be caught.
- Swimming in the sea is less risky in terms of illness but always ask for advice locally if you are not at an obvious beach resort.
4.5.6 - Insects.
- Insect bites can easily go septic and should not be ignored.
- Do not scratch, keep clean, cover and use disinfectant/antiseptic.
- Always wear shoes to avoid insects which penetrate through the soles of the feet.
4.5.7 - Animals.
- Avoid physical contact with animals in general because they are carriers of ticks and fleas
- Avoid pigs as they are scavengers and consume human and other waste and
- Avoid dogs because they can be carriers of rabies.
4.5.8 - Sexually Transmitted Diseases.
- HIV is rife in many parts of the world; infection rates can be as high as 30% of the population.
- HIV is usually acquired through sexual intercourse.
- Therefore, having sex with members of the local population could be risky and is best avoided or official advice on practicing safe sex followed.
4.5.9 - Minor Illnesses.
- Coughs, colds and stomach upsets are very common due to changes in diet and climate.
- Female team Members may find their menstrual cycle is affected and should be prepared.
4.5.10 - Personal Hygiene.
- The normal rules of personal hygiene are particularly important in hot climates, ie, hand washing after the toilet, regular changes of clothes, regular showers etc.
4.5.11 - Malaria.
Because of its importance, there is more about malaria below.
4.6 - Malaria.
Malaria is a serious disease which is caused by a parasite transmitted by mosquitoes. Therefore, the only certain way to avoid malaria is not to be bitten by a mosquito. The symptoms of malaria are varied and can easily be mistaken for other, less serious conditions. They include, for example, flu-like symptoms, stomach upsets, high temperature or loss of appetite. In cases of doubt it is essential that a doctor is consulted quickly because a mild bout of malaria can develop into a life-threatening condition within a few hours. The following measures reduce the risk of catching the disease:
4.6.1 - Prophylactics.
4.6.2 - General.
The areas affected by malaria and, in particular, the effectiveness of prophylactics are constantly changing. Therefore, if travelling to a malarial zone or if in doubt about whether a destination is in a malarial zone you must consult trusted official advice sites and also your Doctor well in advance. In this way, you will be able to ascertain the most effective prophylactic and be able to begin taking it before you travel.
4.6.3 - Insect Repellents.
Use insect repellent containing Diethyltoluamide (DEET) on clothing and exposed skin. Anti-mosquito precautions must be in place from the moment you arrive in country so travel in treated clothing and have insect repellents to hand on the aircraft.
4.6.4 - Sleeping.
Where possible, sleep in a room that is screened against mosquitoes and block any holes in the mesh with tape.
4.6.5 - Clothing.
Cover skin with long sleeves, trousers and socks particularly between dusk and dawn when mosquitoes are particularly active. Arm and wristbands soaked in insect repellent are very effective.
4.6.6 - Returning Home.
Members need to be aware that unusual symptoms in the weeks and months after returning home could be caused by malaria so medical advice should be sought immediately. But make sure you inform the doctor you have been to a malarial country.
4.7 - Personal Medical Kits.
- Each Member should take a personal medical kit if travelling to rural areas and suggested contents are shown below.
- Individual medication as necessary (Essential)
- Malaria prophylactics (Essential)
- Broad spectrum antibiotics
- Dioralyte sachets
- Anti diarrhoea medications
- Antiseptic cream eg, Savlon
- Water sterilizing tablets
- Insect repellent containing DEET
- Pain killers
- Throat lozenges
- Anti histamine cream
- Indigestion tablets
- Travel sickness tablets
- Small bottle of disinfectant
- Cotton wool
- Sun tan lotion (high factor)
If travelling to a developing country you may wish to add:
- Intravenous cannulas
4.8 - Medical Emergencies.
4.8.1 - Fortunately, medical emergencies on projects are very rare. In the unlikely event of an emergency, you should follow the procedure set out by your travel insurers. If possible, talk with your local hosts and ascertain what facilities are available and what help is at hand.
4.9 - The Golden Rules.
In summary, you are likely to stay healthy if you follow the golden rules which are:
- Before the project, visit your GP and get the right immunizations.
- Take a personal medical kit.
- Avoid sunburn.
- Drink bottled water and plenty of it.
- Don't eat salads or unpeeled/unwashed fruit.
- Take care with personal hygiene (eg, hand washing after visiting the toilet etc)
- Take malaria prophylactics before, during and after the trip if travelling to a malarial zone.
- Avoid getting bitten by mosquitoes.
- Wear shoes at all times, in and out of doors.
- Keep away from animals.
- Don't swim in rivers or lakes and ensure beaches are safe
- Avoid having sex with the locals or follow safe sex guideline
5 - Photography
5.1 - The IPA is always in need of good digital photographs for the Website, publications, displays and talks so please do send your photos to Broomhills. Of particular interest are:
Photos with a story. Make a note of names, occupations, what is happening in the photo or the context
Photos that show the scientific and professional work of the IPA
Photographs of IPA work in exotic places
People who may be known in the world of psychoanalysis
5.2 - Restrictions on Photography. Local people may not like to be photographed, so it is always good manners to ask first. Some developing countries are extremely sensitive about spying so do not take photographs of anything official such as military and police installations or vehicles, and airports. Remember the plane spotters who ended up in court in Greece - and Greece is a member of the EC!
Section 6 - General Saftey Precautions
6.1 - Safety.
There is no need to become obsessive about personal safety, but it is prudent to observe some simple rules:
Most IPA business travel involves at least two people or more. Therefore, if travelling as a group, ensure you swap contact details with your colleagues before departure.
If travelling alone for any reason, lodge your travel details, in country host contact details, your contact details and next of kin information with Broomhills by e mail firstname.lastname@example.org
6.2 - Rely on a good guide book, travel advice and in country hosts for local safety information
6.3 - Keep cash and valuables out of sight
6.4 - Comply with official travel advice at all times. If official advice is that you should not travel to a particular destination, then do not travel there, irrespective of the advice of country partners or hosts.
6.5 - Driving abroad may pose particular risks. In some countries, for example you will be held in custody if involved in traffic accident involving injury until a hearing is held. Driving is best avoided unless absolutely necessary and public transport the preferred option.
Approved by the Board January 2008
*This change record is for background information only and does not form part of the Procedural Code. If there is any conflict between a statement in the Procedural Code and a statement in this change record, the change record will be disregarded.